In 19th-century Europe, women fought hard to gain the right to receive an education, to work and to vote. Women’s right to use public spaces triggered impassioned debate in Europe and in the Arab and Ottoman world, particularly in Egypt, where reformers such as Rifa‘a Rafi’ al-Tahtawi (1801–73) and Qasim Amin (1865–1908) advocated education for women as a means to advance Arab-Islamic society. The first schools for Muslim girls were established in Egypt, Tunisia and Lebanon. At the dawn of the 20th century, women began to emerge and occupy pioneering positions in teaching, the labour force and protest movements against colonial powers.
Excursions au Maroc. Oudjda par Lalla Marnia hôtel Figari...service de voitures...correspondance avec la diligence de Tlemcen et les trains de l'ouest algérien.

Excursions aux oliveraies d'Oudjda, visite au champ de bataille d'Isly...Chevaux et mulets pour promenades et excursions


National Library of France, Paris, France

Alexandre Lunois

Western travellers in the Arab and Ottoman world often sought out scenes of daily life involving women. The way Europeans imagined the position of women in Arab and Ottoman society, deduced not least from the way they dressed, was fed by often fanciful, romanticised and inaccurate accounts from travellers or the photographs they brought back.

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