Ornamental and structural elements are essential parts of an architectural language available to and characteristic of a certain era. There is always a canon for the use of these elements, which largely ensures that buildings and urban structures are harmonious and well proportioned.
Elements of architectural design include all the modules and motifs that together compose the form of a building or urban structure. From a different perspective, the interconnected elements of design and decorative motifs represent the cultural encounters and dialogues between the Arab and Ottoman world and Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The many characteristic features that define local Islamic architectural traditions include: the minaret, dome and the form of arches; muqarna
or stalactite corbels and glazed tiles and tile work with specific decorative elements; earthenware, marble, stucco and stonework decorated with geometric designs; stylised inscriptions and calligraphy; private, semi-private and public inner courtyards; as well as the use and organisation of space and many other factors. Elements of “Eastern” design were translated into European designs for architecture and arts and crafts. Taking an urbanistic approach, new methods of Arab and Ottoman urban planning and design as well as the growth of small settlements can be traced to the large cities.