“[T]he fez was introduced by Mahmud II ... the effect on turban-makers ... was devastating although tassel-makers saw their profits soar, for fez tassels had to be replaced at least once a year.” (From Philippa Scott)
Men’s clothing, which in previous centuries had been what marked the trend, became an aspect of fashion that rarely changed in the 19th century. The influence of military clothing on civilian dress was very marked. For men, the headdress (hat) or other details was used to indicate belonging to a specific ethnic group. Unlike women’s dress, which underwent significant changes at this time (particularly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries), men’s clothing in Europe and the Arab and Ottoman world did not change significantly in terms of shape, although different raw materials started to be used, with cotton becoming more common in some garments.