In the wake of European industrialisation, high-quality mass-produced goods were increasingly exported to the Arab and Ottoman world.
In Europe, the Industrial Revolution led to technological innovations that allowed the large-scale production of machine-made goods. In the 19th century the expanding trade of such commodities from Europe to the Arab and Ottoman world was largely based on the export of textiles, modern consumer goods, weaponry and luxury items that were aimed at the royal and urban elite in the region. As a result, traditional local industries and their products were soon no longer able to compete with European imports and consequently declined in output and quality, often ceasing altogether. Early attempts at industrialising the production of goods remained limited in the Arab and Ottoman world due to many complex factors, including the lack of appropriate raw materials and infrastructures.