Finished products
In the wake of European industrialisation, high-quality mass-produced goods were increasingly exported to the Arab and Ottoman world.
In Europe, the Industrial Revolution led to technological innovations that allowed the large-scale production of machine-made goods. In the 19th century the expanding trade of such commodities from Europe to the Arab and Ottoman world was largely based on the export of textiles, modern consumer goods, weaponry and luxury items that were aimed at the royal and urban elite in the region. As a result, traditional local industries and their products were soon no longer able to compete with European imports and consequently declined in output and quality, often ceasing altogether. Early attempts at industrialising the production of goods remained limited in the Arab and Ottoman world due to many complex factors, including the lack of appropriate raw materials and infrastructures.
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Finished products
Fez of a common soldier of the Austro-Hungarian infantry from Bosnia-Herzegovina

End of the 19th century

Austrian Military Museum / Institute of Military History, Vienna, Austria


In 1826 the fez, worn in the Greek islands and already in use among North African Muslims, replaced the turban in Ottoman army uniforms, becoming in 1829 compulsory for male civilians too. Fezzes were imported from Austro-Hungary until 1908, when its annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina triggered an Ottoman boycott of Austrian goods. In 1925 wearing a fez was forbidden by Kemal Ataturk (first President of the Turkish Republic) because fezzes were considered a reminder of the old regime.

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