Printing and photography changed the cultural and political life of society in many decisive ways.
During the 19th century, printing technology developed further and new technologies (e.g. steam-powered machinery, lithography, four-colour printing and the rotary press) facilitated the production of books and newspapers.
The technique of lithography crossed with the experiments of the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, who invented the first photograph in 1826, had greatly enhanced published materials. Photography techniques developed throughout the 19th century. People, monuments and events such as the Crimean War were photographed. New printing technologies provided the basis for the diffusion of political and cultural ideas and most importantly for shaping public opinion. In the Ottoman Empire, the Tanzimat (reforms issued by the Ottoman sultans from 1839) promoted newspapers in local languages and provided a legal framework for the press (Press and Journalism Regulation Code, 1864). The printing of books, periodicals and newspapers played an important role in advancing the ideas of Nahda
(renaissance) in the Arab and Ottoman world.