Steel was the backbone of heavy industry in both civic and military realms.
Steel production technology took a huge step forward by using what was known as the Bessemer process, which got rid of excess carbon and other impurities in pig iron using oxidation. The Siemens-Martin open-hearth process was the second gigantic step forward, using a more efficient regenerative furnace, steel mass production started from molten pig iron. The availability of inexpensive steel made the construction of large bridges possible and enabled the construction of railways, sky scrapers and large steel ships. With high-quality steel it was also possible to take the production of handguns, guns in general, tanks and other armoured military vehicles to an unprecedented level. The products of the steel industry changed the technical and social landscape, military structure and even warfare. The Ottoman and Arab world was at the receiving end of this equation.